During the Yotoco-Malagana period (AD 1-500), the upper and middle region of the river Calima and the fertile plains of the river Cauca were populated by farmers who built agricultural terraces, dwellings, drainage systems and networks of roads. Their chiefs had specialists who manufactured elaborate metal objects which are normally found in shaft graves. The gold objects are made by hammering and casting. When fully dressed, the metal ornaments of a Calima chief of the Yotoco period would have covered a substantial part of the body surface. The mouth was hidden by a large nose ornament, so that it was not seen when the mouth moved while speaking.